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Roman furniture was constructed principally using wood, metal and stone, with marble and limestone used for outside furniture. The and excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii revealed Roman furniture, preserved in the ashes of the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius , to the eighteenth century. In contrast to the ancient civilisations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome, we have comparatively little evidence of furniture from the 5th to the 15th century. The furniture of the Middle Ages was usually heavy, oak , and ornamented with carved designs. Along with the other arts, the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth century marked a rebirth in design, often inspired by the Greco-Roman tradition.

A similar explosion of design, and renaissance of culture in general occurred in Northern Europe, starting in the fifteenth century. The seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent, often gilded Baroque designs that frequently incorporated a profusion of vegetal and scrolling ornament.

Starting in the eighteenth century, furniture designs began to develop more rapidly. Although there were some styles that belonged primarily to one nation, such as Palladianism in Great Britain or Louis Quinze in French furniture , others, such as the Rococo and Neoclassicism were perpetuated throughout Western Europe. During the eighteenth century, the fashion was set in England by the French art. In the beginning of the century Boulle. In this era, most of the furniture had metal and enamelled decorations in it and some of the furniture was covered in inlays of marbles lapis lazuli, and porphyry and other stones.

By mid-century this Baroque style was displaced by the graceful curves, shining ormolu , and intricate marquetry of the Rococo style, which in turn gave way around to the more severe lines of Neoclassicism , modeled after the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. The nineteenth century is usually defined by concurrent revival styles , including Gothic , Neoclassicism, Rococo, and the EastHaven Movement.

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The design reforms of the late century introduced the Aesthetic movement and the Arts and Crafts movement. Art Nouveau was influenced by both of these movements. This design was in many ways rooted in necessity and emphasizes both form and materials. Early American [ vague ] chairs and tables are often constructed with turned spindles and chair backs often constructed with steaming to bend the wood.

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Wood choices tend to be deciduous hardwoods with a particular emphasis on the wood of edible or fruit bearing trees such as cherry or walnut. The first three-quarters of the twentieth century is often seen as the march towards Modernism. Postmodern design, intersecting the Pop art movement, gained steam in the s and 70s, promoted in the 80s by groups such as the Italy-based Memphis movement. Transitional furniture is intended to fill a place between Traditional and Modern tastes. Great efforts from individuals, governments, and companies has led to the manufacturing of products with higher sustainability known as Ecodesign.

This new line of furniture is based on environmentally friendly design. Its use and popularity are increasing each year. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is Live edge , heralding a return to natural shapes and textures within the home. Asian furniture has a quite distinct history. The traditions out of India , China , Pakistan , Indonesia Bali and Java and Japan are some of the best known, but places such as Korea , Mongolia , and the countries of South East Asia have unique facets of their own.

The use of uncarved wood and bamboo and the use of heavy lacquers are well known Chinese styles. It is worth noting that Chinese furniture varies dramatically from one dynasty to the next. Traditional Japanese furniture is well known for its minimalist style, extensive use of wood, high-quality craftsmanship and reliance on wood grain instead of painting or thick lacquer. Japanese chests are known as Tansu , known for elaborate decorative iron work, and are some of the most sought-after of Japanese antiques.

The antiques available generally date back to the Tokugawa and Meiji periods. This includes carved and sculpted pieces intended as works of art, as well as the styling of seats to indicate social importance, with senior figures or leaders granted the use of specially designed seats. The simplest form of seat is the chair , [45] which is a piece of furniture designed to allow a single person to sit down, which has a back and legs, as well as a platform for sitting.

All different types of woods have unique signature marks that can help in easy identification of the type. Both hardwoods and softwoods are used in furniture manufacturing, and each has their own specific uses. Highest quality wood will have been air dried to rid it of its moisture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Furniture disambiguation.


The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with Europe and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. September Learn how and when to remove this template message.

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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of furniture types. This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate.


Editing help is available. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Furniture portal Design portal. Fine Furnishings show branches out in 10th year with a bigger spread of classic and cutting-edge pieces". New York, p. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. University Press, , p. Michael Gagarin and Elaine Fantham Oxford: Oxford University Press, , Crescent, , Rosenkilde and Bagger, , There's a problem loading this menu right now.

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