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Pressure can force magma out of the ground, creating a volcano. When the magma lava cools quickly, it turns into solid extrusive igneous rock. Magma that cools slowly underground forms solid intrusive igneous rock.

Sea Lions on the Rocks Below - Picture of Inn at Otter Crest, Otter Rock - TripAdvisor

G Areas of rock can move slowly upwards, pushed up by pressure of the rocks forming underneath. This is called uplift. Weathering breaks down rocks on the surface of the Earth.


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Rivers and streams transport rock particles to other places. Rock particles form layers.

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Compaction and cementation presses the layers and sticks the particles together. Rocks underground get heated and put under pressure, and are changed into metamorphic rock. Rocks underground that get heated so much they melt turn into magma. Areas of rock can move slowly upwards, pushed up by pressure of the rocks forming underneath.

The rest of the Earth is solid, except in a few places close to the surface where there are volcanoes and a couple of places where we know a little bit of incomplete melting has occurred.

How do you reconcile that to a teenager? I provide the example of candle wax.

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Likewise, the rock of the mantle is warm enough that individual atoms shift in the mineral matrix, retaining the crystalline structure but causing distortion of the mineral i. Your email address will not be published.

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Misconception – The Rock Below Tectonic Plates is Liquid

Levin likened the EarthScope data to going from using a tiny flashlight in a dusty room to having an overhead light. Or, to compare it with another world-illuminating project, "it is comparable to sending Hubble up," he said, referring to the legendary space telescope. With the help of undergraduate students working on thesis projects, Levin and his colleagues found that the telltale stretch marks left when the rock in Earth's interior moves were missing from the same area where the rock below the surface appeared to be hotter.

Altogether, the evidence suggests that a blob of hot rock some miles kilometers down is welling upward in the upper part of Earth's mantle the layer of Earth just beneath the crust , the study authors said. Barbara Romanowicz, a geophysicist at UC Berkeley who was not involved in the research, said in an email that this blob could be linked to a finger of material deeper in the mantle that she and one of her graduate students are describing in work currently being reviewed for publishing in a scientific journal.

That finger extends horizontally along a hotspot track or the trace left as tectonic plates moved over a volcanic hotspot from the mid-Atlantic ridge — the seam that runs down the middle of the ocean floor — inland and northward, she said.


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The data are just not there to see them," Romanowicz said. The blob's small size and hot temperature also suggest it is a relatively young feature — on the scale of tens of millions of years old — because it likely would've cooled off if it were younger, he said.