Science Fiction im Park Bruno Kreisky Park, 5. Der Eintritt ist frei! Joe Cornish] Alois-Drasche-Park, 4. Josh Appignanesi] Arena, 3. Olesen] Das Gschwandner, Schrammeln [D , R: A Prairie Home Companion: Robert Altman], OmU Ken Loach] Dornerplatz, Submarine [GB , R: Richard Ayoade], OmU Debra Granik], OmU Olivier Baroux], OmU Hans Petter Moland], OmU Karl Markovics] Karmelitermarkt, 2. Paolo Sorrentino], OmU Paddy Considine], OmU Karmeliterplatz, 2. Derek Cianfrance], OmU Matteottiplatz, JC Chandor] Matznerpark, Josh Appignanesi] Meidlinger Platzl, Riad Sattouf] Piazetta am Brunnenmarkt, Asghar Farhadi], OmU Umut Dag], OmU Reithofferpark, Almanya — Willkommen in Deutschland [D , R: Yasemin Samdereli] Sportplatz Alt Erlaa, Sommer in Orange [D , R: Im Himmel, unter der Erde.
Gilles Paquet-Brenner] Wallensteinplatz, Ausstellungen 21er Haus 3. Podiumsdiskussion mit Joel Sternfeld. AzW Photo Award Permanent Bank Austria Kunstforum 1. Permanent Oberes Belvedere Mo—So Bezirksgericht Innere Stadt 3. Die Ausstellung zeigt die Mode der Zukunft: Widerstand, Verfolgung, Vor- und Nachgeschichte. Permanent Dritte Mann Museum 4.
Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum 5. Haus der Musik 1. Kunsthalle Wien Karlsplatz 4. Public Space Mo—So,Fei 0. Kunsthalle Wien Museumsquartier 7. Architecture as a Stake. Dinge — schlicht und einfach. Ein Sammler aus Leidenschaft — F. Hof, 86 72, www. Permanent Naturhistorisches Museum 1.
Permanent Objekte im FoKus: Sammlung Friedrichshof Stadtraum 4. Sommercamps in und um Wien. Lilalu, das ausgefallene Sommercamp aus Deutschland, macht heuer zum ersten Mal auf dem Schulschiff in Floridsdorf Station. Dieses Jahr gibt es wieder eine Kinder-Kunst-Uni, und zwar zwischen 2.
Sigmund Freud Museum 9. Permanent TBA21 Augarten 2. Jahrhundert bis in die Gegenwart. Werk Museum Postsparkasse 1. World Press Photo Wienbibliothek im Rathaus 1. Wien Energie Haus 6. Wien Wiener Kriminalmuseum 2. Permanent Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur Augarten 2. Darstellung von Produktionsschritten und Manufakturmuseum.
Permanent Wiener Stadt- und Landesarchiv Wien Museum Karlsplatz 4. Permanent Werkbundsiedlung Wien Ein Manifest des neuen Wohnens. Die Liebe zum Nochniedagewesenen Der goldene Drache Die Kommune Amerlinghaus 7. Freulein Jakob geht vor die Runde. Fool of Love Romeo und Julia Krieg und Frieden Schlitzohren HdB Liesing Das Ende vom Anfang Volkstheater in den Bezirken , 11—77, www. Jedermann International Theatre 9. Judy — Somewhere Over The Rainbow Der Herr Karl Non n sens Einer zuviel im Bett Kosmos Theater 7.
Der Wiener Faust Ensemble 19, Reservierung: Freuds Dora Rabenhof 3. Schlag sie tot Deluxe. Zawrel — erbbiologisch und sozial minderwertig Theater Akzent 4. Orange Theater in der Josefstadt 8. Ich — Marilyn John Gabriel Borkman Ein Klotz am Bein Die Saulacken Stegreif Klassik Mord in der Wurlitzergasse Stegreif Klassik, Jugendverbot! Alles wegen dem Maxl Stegreif Klassik Geierwally Stegreif Reloaded Boeing Boeing Volkstheater 7.
Memoiren der Sarah Bernhardt Kinder der Sonne Mondlicht und Magnolien Juwelen der Neuen Welt II Nurejew Gala Theater am Spittelberg 7. Raw Matters Schule des Theaters 7. Fragilezone Tanzquartier Wien 7. The Godfathers Snitzels Gloria Kabarett Feuerwerk des Kabaretts Kulisse Traumschiff Supancic Mike Supancic Die Katze im Sack Spezial. Lutz von Rosenberg Lipinsky Schutzhaus Zukunft Wenn die Fremde 3x klopft Thomas Zeska Stadtsaal 6. Probe mit Clowns Volle Kanne Dornrosen Show Bezirksvorstehung Alsergrund 9. Circus Louis Knie Jun. Der kleine Horrorladen Polnisches Institut 1.
Polnische Hochzeit Operette Raimundtheater 6. Ich war noch niemals in New York Ronacher 1. Theater im ersten Stock 6. Mozart Ensemble Wien Echoraum Studierende des Lehrgangs Computermusik Franziskanerkirche 1. Anastasiia Dombrovska Klavier Haus Hofmannsthal 3. Wiener Hofburgorchester, Gert Hofbauer Imperialsaal 1. Wiener Royal Orchester Karlskirche 4. Orchester ; Solisten der Salzburger Konzertgesellschaft Lars Vogt Klavier Berio-Saal: Franz Schubert Chorwettbewerb Abschlusskonzert Franz Schubert Chorwettbewerb Salonorchester Alt-Wien Michaelerkirche 1.
Orgel um Acht in St. Cleveland Orchestra Youth Orchestra Musikverein 1. Moravische Philharmonie Olomouc ORF Radiosymphonieorchester Wien Wiener Mozart Orchester Wiener Residenzorchester Peterskirche 1. Saudade II — Fernweh Karten: Kammermusik Wiener Philharmoniker 10 Stephansdom 1.
Fiveseasons Geburtstagsfest Amerlinghaus 7. Cornelia Mayer Arena 3. Rock'n'Roll Summer Sell Out Hot Water Music Snow Patrol backbone — irish pub 7. Gaelic Desaster Bamkraxler Wag The Dog Beim Hannes Die Toten Hosen Vorverkauf ab 5. Gonjasufi Cafe-Restaurant Alt-Erdberg 3. The Neatpickers CapaTosta d'Estate 1. Prinz Wabra Trio Julia Siedl's Groove Aldentique Celeste 5. Chocolate Lovers Chelsea 8. Skeleton Witch Clash 9. Metal Karaoke mit Liveband Feuerwehr Wagner Jeden letzten Donnerstag im Monat froff-Boutique Alfredo Garcia-Navas guit, voc ,.
GAB Music Factory Montag im Monat G'schamster Diener 6. Zwa Musi Haus der Musik 1. Rae Spoon Herrgott aus Sta Aquarius Jazzband Interkulttheater 6. Philipp Harnisch Quartett Jazzland 1. Julia Siedl Quartett Bettina Krenosz Jazz4tett Konzerthaus 3. Vienna Blues Affair Beisl: Wiener Tschuschenkapelle akustisch Liebhartstaler Bockkeller Bluessession mit Hannes Kasehs The Blue Chili Siggi Fassl Metropol Drums On Earth Mojo Blues Band Andy Lee Lang Metropoldi: Caladh Nua Mikes Werkstatt 3.
DJ Jorge Benites Golnar Mahan Duo IR Jazz Night III Jazz Night IV Karl Ratzer Quintett Strenge Kammer: Pawl Szamburski, Burkhard Stangl Wolfgang Frisch Restaurant Prilisauer Donnerstag im Monat Schubert-Theater 9. Jura Swing Sektkellerei Kattus Dobrek Bistro Skodagasse, zwischen 17 und 21 8. Jeden letzten Dienstag im Monat Stadttheater Walfischgasse 1. Maracatu Novo Toque Szene Wien Die Blues-Schrammeln Tunnel 8. Delta Blues Duo Eva Maria Valenta — Jazzklasse Abschlusskonzert Viktor Kautsch Volkstheater 7.
Tini Kainrath Avenue Leila's Vocal Jam Session Jure Pukl sax Mario Lima Quartett Belleville Liebhartstaler Bockkeller Broadway Piano Bar Metropol Martin Stepanik, solo Subterrarium Kuskus Theater an der Wien 6. Literatur Aktionsradius Wien Die hellen Haufen Von den Umarmungen Amerlinghaus 7. Erlebtes — Erdachtes — Erlesenes. Andreas Pittler Buchkontor Banatsko Buffet-Espresso Zum Konstantineck 2.
Steirischer Krimiabend Club International Bloomsday — Ulysses in Ottakring Bloomsday II — Bloomsday Night Farce Vivendi Open Mic Die undankbare Fremde Anders lesen lernen Die Kunst des William S. Der Hund ist tot. Zores Literaturhaus Wien 7. Slam B Poetry Slam Jury der jungen Leser Preisverleihung Evolver Books beim 1. Leseabend Osteria Allora Paarweise leere Versprechen read!! Gerda Hoffer — Rhiz 8. Textstrom Poetry Slam Moderation: Mieze Medusa Shelter Das Ende der Angst?
Die Zukunft der arabischen Welt Delikatessen Theater Nestroyhof Hamakom 2. Neurotic Lounge Leseperformance Theater Spielraum 7. Wir sind der Text. Querschnitt durch das literarische Gesamtwerk Weinhaus Sittl Poetry Slam im Wiener Lustspielhaus. Meditation und Bewusstseinstechniken im Kulturvergleich Naturhistorisches Museum 1. Schlimme Kinder, brave Kinder: Das Ende der klassischen Medizin?
Wiener Tage der Musikwirtschaftsforschung Kinder Architekturzentrum Wien 7. Leben am Wasser in Wien? Licht aus, Taschenlampe an! Streets of Africa 2 Tanz, ab 6 J. Junior Cup Figurentheater Lilarum 3. Woher kommt die Schokolade? Das Zookonzert ab 5 J. Kleb dir dein Minikleid ab 8J Sixties Design — Kinderworkshop: Pappsessel im Sixties Look ab 8J Wir bitten zum Tanz — Quadrille tanzen lernen Rosen, Tulpen — und ein Olivenbaum.
Ein Spaziergang von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart Anmeldung erforderlich! Schatzsuche Landgut Wien Cobenzl Aladdin und die Wunderlampe ab 5 J. Kagome — Kindersandkiste im Weidenzelt Naturhistorisches Museum 1. Der Elch im Supermarkt Ferien vor Jahren Planetarium Wien 2. Yanni und die Kiesel aus dem All 4—8 J.
Der Knall im All ab 7J Treffen unter den Sternen Yanni und der Drache des Titans Star Date — Rendezvous mit den Sternen Der Mond beim Schneider Die Entdeckung des Weltalls Zeig mir, wo die Sternlein steh'n Junior Inline Roady Praterkasperl 2. Die goldene Kugel Orchesterworkshop Anmeldungen am 1. Ich mach' mir die Welt — Kinderworkshop: Neue Medien Rabenhof 3. Fr, Di, Mi Wiener Kinderlesefest Sargfabrik Kuddelmuddel und Gesprudel Lieder, ab 3 J.
Our Music Radio Lieder, ab 3 J. Kasperl und Strolchi Summer Stage 9. Video Clip Dance Kinderbetreuung kostenlos Technisches Museum Im tiefen Wald Traumfabrik 6—10J — Workshop Thalia Buchhandlung 3. English Workshop Theater am Spittelberg 7. Die Martha im Koffer Clowntheater, ab 5 J. Theater der Jugend — Renaissancetheater 7.
Alice im Wunderland Musical, ab 6 J. Theater der Jugend — Theater im Zentrum 1. The London Eye Mystery ab 11 J. Flausis Abenteuer Puppentheater, ab 2,5 J. Kochen ist Chefsache Regie P. Alice im Wunderland jr. Sommer, Sonne, Elfentanz Storytelling, ab 6 J. Lab Club — Das Sprachgenie.
Vienna Nightrow — Rudern bei Nacht!. Kaiserwiese, vor dem Riesenrad 2.
Grand Prix Fluc 7 — Championnat ouvert de Football Austrian Handbike Challenge Austrian Skate Marathon Strudlhofstiege 9. Strudlhofstiegenlauf SV Gersthof Concordia Ball Spanische Hofreitschule 1. Sommerfest im AzW Badeschiff 2. Best of Portugal 3. Kunst- und Kulturmesse — International art view Voice Crew — Probe Margarete Wenzel Chaya Fuera 7.
SmART my City ErVolXmusikanten Abschlussveranstaltung , www. Feenzelt im Prater 2. European Umbrella March Haus der Industrie 3. IncrediblEurope Summit Juwelen der neuen Welt Ballett Lucia di Lammermoor Nurejew Gala Ballett Riesenwuzzler Turnier Konzerthaus 3. Martin Grubinger und Bernhard Kerres — Spendenaktion, www. Hasenherz oder Die Lust am bewegten Bild und Wort: Fest der Artenvielfalt Lebensbaumkreis Am Himmel Fritz Haeg Media Opera 3.
Hommage an Hans Richter. Weekend of Horrors Fahrt, Buffet, Livemusik, Heimfahrt mit Bus Gesundheit erleben, ertasten und ausprobieren, www. Sommerfest mit Musik und veganer Kulinarik, www. Textile Wandbilder, Holzschnitzereien, Keramiken, Trachtenschmuck u. Smir-Sommerfest — Generationen verbindend.
Flohmarkt, Kinderspielepfad, Live Musik u. Sternenshow ab 14J, Dauer: Weinpreis der Stadt Wien Morgenarbeit der Lipizzaner Der Stadtparkt feiert seinen Geburtstag mit Live-Musik und Familienprogramm. Tanz bis Satire Time Travel Vienna 1. Campus Party Vekks 5. Vor Supermarkt Prosi 7. Prosi Exotic Festiva werkzeugH 5. Fest der Integration Wuk 9. Absolut Special Edition Day Zirkuswiese Lerchenfelder Bauernmarkt Antiquariat Krikl Bio-Bauernmarkt Gewerbepark Stadlau Neni Art Collective 11 feat.
Flohmarkt Stadlauer Park Das perfekte Desaster Dinner. Begegnungen 8— 12J Theater am Spittelberg 7. Beethovensaal der Pfarre Heiligenstadt Einer zuviel im Bett Schloss Wilhelminenberg Das Freudenhaus vom Liebhartsthal Jugendverbot 4. Thirty-one photographs of concentration and extermination camps mostly from Bergen-Belsen upon their liberation, revealing Nazi atrocities and portraying S. Most of the photographs were taken in Bergen-Belsen.
Printed on the reverse of each photograph are the location and a caption in French and English. Inserted in three fallen-apart cardboard binders with a picture and inscription. Collection of Books about the Holocaust — Rees printing press, Tsentral-farband fun Poylishe idn in Sau Paulo, Six Yiddish books printed for She'erit Hapletha in Europe: Lands and People, Reading and exercise. In memory of our Jewish brethren who died for Kidush Hashem.
Photograph of a memorial plaque inscribed and illustrated by hand. A large illustration on top titled "Yizkor" , depicting a synagogue hall and scenes of Jewish history during the holocaust: On the borders appears the inscription: The edges are decorated with iron chains, in each link appears an illustration and a text based on the Passover Haggadah, on verses from Jewish sources and on the liturgical poem "Unetane Tokef". The famous poem "Babi Yar" by Yevgeny Yevtushenko in which he protested against the Soviet indifference towards the remembrance of Jewish victims.
Translated into Hebrew by Elchanan Indelman. With artistic illustrations designed as woodcuts created by Baruch Solomon. Leaves are inserted in a cloth-covered cardboard folder. Portfolio with 6 lithographs by Roger Loewig , inspired by a children's poem written in Terezin Ghetto. Portfolio includes an introduction and the artist's biography as well as the poem in German and Czech.
Extensive collection of about 70 study and scholarly books, newspapers and bound volumes of issues of the Orthodox and Reform Jewry in Germany, published between the years Frankfurt, , and some other books and papers. A weekly magazine devoted to Jewish interests, emphasizing German Jewry.
The periodical was published continuously between the years First it was printed in Leipzig and later in Berlin. The founder and editor of the periodical was the reform rabbi Ludwig Philippson. The collection offered here contains eight bound volumes from the years: A single issue of Most volumes measure Periodical about Jewish Subjects, Illustrations — Vienna, A periodical published for two years, featuring essays concerning Judaism and Jews from different aspects. Published in this periodical were scholarly essays about poetry, Jewish congregations around the world and some essays of a more amusing nature.
The text is accompanied by tens of black and white illustrations, numerous portraits and biblical-historic scenes. Bound volume of issues , 31 cm. Petersburg, — The Dreyfus Affair. Volume containing issues of year Russian and some Hebrew. The issues contain news from Russia and from around the world including items and articles on the Dreyfus Affair , articles on the Jewish community, Zionism, Hebrew literature and press, and more. The issues also contain many advertisements, some of them printed in Hebrew, advertising, among other things, Jewish businesses, publishing houses and journals with ads of the tea company Wissotzky, Carmel Warsaw wine, the Hebrew newspaper Hashiloach, Tushiyah Press, and more.
Worming to first leaves. Some leaves partly detached. Tears to some leaves. Worn binding, almost entirely detached. Each part is devoted to a different topic. The book offered here consists of the six parts bound together. Among the authors and creators who contributed to the periodical were Jewish writers and poets like Stefan Zweig, Albert Ehrenstein and Else Lasker-Schiller.
Drawings and illustrations throughout the book. Six issues bound in one volume. Bound with several additional issues of supplements with responses and advertisements for the periodical. Der Jude eine monatsschrift, 8 volumes of the monthly. Der Jude was a Jewish periodical, for philosophy and literature, founded by Martin Buber in the midst of World War I, and published between the years Enclosed is a special volume published in honor of Martin Buber's fiftieth birthday.
Volumes were not thoroughly checked and are sold AS IS. Volume of issues of the first year apparently, no other issues were published of the weekly "Volk und Land", a periodical dealing with the economic, political and social aspects of Zionism. Edited by Davis Trietsch , author and Zionist activist.
Binding dismantled and detached. Periodical for Genealogy — Dr. Arthur Czellitzer — Berlin, About 37 issues of the quarterly "Research of the Jewish family"; a periodical for genealogy and family-trees. The periodical was published in Germany between the years The editor, Arthur Czellitzer, a Jewish ophthalmologist, founded the first society for research of Jewish genealogy. Arthur Czellitzer writes in the introduction to the first issue what the main aims of the society are, "since the Jewish people, at this stage, have no state nor a language of their own, the information about the family history will contribute to bring them closer to their original roots".
The periodical included a section which presented the members' questions about genealogy and the answers by readers were published in the following issue. Czellitzer fled to Holland with his archive but was captured by the Nazis and murdered in Sobibor extermination camp in Total of 37 issues not consecutive, some lack pages , 23 cm. Periodical for philosophy, religion and politics, focused on the encounter between religions.
Detached cardboard bindings Open tear. Bound volume of first year issues: Mercy Sohn, January-November The monthly was published in Prague between the years Enclosed is a single issue of , no. Bound volume with issues issue no. News about Jewish matters, essays and poems about current events by the period's authors, in Hebrew. Bound volume with 16 issues of the first year , An extensive collection of issues — "The Menorah Journal". The Menorah Journal was an important intellectual periodical in English, published in New-York between the years The periodical was devoted to the study of Judaism, literary criticism, poetry and art and provided a platform for Jewish authors and creators.
The collection offered here compiles some 85 issues of the periodical from the years ; these are only part of the issues published during that period and are nonconsecutive. Some issues were bound in several volumes. Paper covers of numerous issues are detached, worn and torn. Vienna-Frankfurt am Main-Berlin, German, some Hebrew and English. The periodical "Menorah", mainly about Jewish culture, was published in the years After the third year, the sub-title of the magazine was changed. From the introduction to the first issue: But this paper has a wider purpose: The periodical features numerous articles about art; among the artists featured: Articles and pieces by various writers including Max Nordau and Ze'ev Zabotinsky.
Yiddish, Russian and English. A Jewish weekly in three languages published by the Zionist organization "Kadima" in Shanghai between the years , edited by David Rabinovitz. Editor of the Yiddish section was Menachem Flexer. Offered here is an issue dated October 18, Calendar — Engravings — Leipzig, A calendar with many supplements among them stories and poems by various artists: Essays about various topics, icluding Jewish emancipation. With 14 print plates of illustrations and a folding engraving plate of Europe's map with markings of railway routes and central marine routes.
Collection of Jewish Calendars from Europe — Italian, German, Hungarian and Hebrew. Illustrated calendar for the year , Munich . Simon Hevesi, Jeno Polnay, Dr. Bethlehem — Ignaz Reich — Budapest, — Engravings. Two almanacs accompanied by poems, quotations from the scripture, numerous essays and portraits engraving plates of Jewish-Hungarian personalities. Essays were composed by the most eminent Jewish scholars and philosophers in Europe.
The yearbook was published between the years During the years the yearbook was printed by M. The collection offered here contains all of the volumes since until , consecutively. One volume was printed for the years and an additional volume for Publishing was halted between and ; most of the volumes are offered here. Some worming to several volumes. Almanac about European Culture — Potsdam, Tears and damage to binding.
Two Theatre Yearbooks, Germany. Two yearbooks of theaters in Wurzburg and in Gera, with numerous photographs of stage sets and actors. This book, considered to be Mendelssohn's most important book, in which he calls for religious tolerance and recognition in the rights of Jews. Small loss to upper part of title page. Wear and damage to binding. Six books by Heinrich Heine and books about him. Hoffmann und Campe, Johann David Sauerlander, Published under pen name Linke Poot. Blaubart und Miss Ilsebill. Hand Heinrich Tillgner, Lithographs by Carl Kabus.
Three plays bound together: Hayn, early 19th century. Adolf Jellinek zu seinem Jahrzeitstage. Composition published on the 10th death anniversary of Adolf Jellinek, prominent Austrian-Jewish scholar. Dedication by the author, on title page. Amerika, roman, Franz Kafka. First edition of "Amerika" by Franz Kafka. The book is known also by its title "The Absentee" Der Verschollene. The book was composed between the years but was published only in , some four years after Kafka's demise. Das Heilige Land, nach seiner ehemaligen und jetzigen geographischen Beschaffenheit, nebst kritischen Blicken in das Carl v.
Accompanied by two illustration plates: Two folding plates are bound at the end of the book: Illustration of a panorama view of the Old City in lithographic printing, together with a folding map of Eretz Israel Author's signature to title page. Lacking front cover board. Spine and back cover board are detached. Seven books by Arthur Schnitzler, published by S.
All the books are dedicated and signed by Arthur Schnitzler. Eight books by Arthur Schnitzler, signed by him, some dedicated by him. Published by Paul Zsolnay Verlag. Fischer Verlag, Berlin, Five books with dedications handwritten by Arno Nadel. Germany, First 4 books are by Nadel.
Um dieses alles, Gedichte, Munich-Leipzig: Author's dedication in blue pencil from , initialed. Tears, creases and stains. Numerous stains to binding. Two postcards handwritten by Richard Beer-Hofmann, sent to the Viennese publisher Ludwig Goldscheider, founder of the art press Phaedon. One postcard is dated , the other is undated apparently from the same period. Five Books by Mynona — Dedications — Five books by Mynona Salomo Friedlander , Books — with dedications handwritten by the author. Eighteen illustrations by Alfred Kubin. Thirty-seven reproductions of works by George Grosz.
Mein hundertster Geburtstag und andere Grimassen. Dedication handwritten by Friedlander on title page. Kant gegen Einstein, fragelehrbuch nach Immanuel Kant und Ernst Marcus Zum unterricht in den vernunftwissenschaftlichen vorbedingungen der naturwissenschaft. Der Neue Geist, Dedication handwritten by the author Vienna, on first leaf. Three books and a single leaf from Hugo von Hofmannsthal writings, three are signed. Published by Sechster Druck der Johannes-presse.
Journey poem by the author, printed on a single leaf and signed. Dedicated by the author and signed. Booklet with poems, stenciled. Book published on the sixtieth birthday of publisher and gallery owner Bruno Cassirer, with congratulations and essays about publishing, composed by his friends and colleagues.
With reproductions of works, including a reproduction of Cassirer's portrait by Max Liebermann. Dedication signed by Cassirer on front endpaper. Front cover detatched, worn bindind. Small open tears edges of binding. Large parts of spine are lacking. Auf Kypros, Marie Madeleine. Published by Est-Est Verlag. Early poetry by author and poet Marie Madeleine, in an album format with prints of many works by leading artists of the period such as Lovis Corinth and Max Liebermann.
Original engraving by Hermann Struck, signed in the plate. Some foxing and age stains. The second book of poems by German poet, writer and essayist Gottfried Benn Woodcut by Ludwig Meidner on the title page. Printed on high-quality paper. Signature on title page, from Hamlet — Engravings — Sepp Frank — Berlin, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, William Shakespeare. Published by Julius Schroder. The tragedy "Hamlet" by Shakespeare, with 35 engravings by Sepp Frank Artist's signature on colophon.
Comic play by the Italian playwright, satirist and author of the Renaissance period Pietro Arentino Six engravings by Rolf Schott, one of which is a frontispiece engraving of the author's portrait. Half leather binding with gold embossing. Three Books — Bibliophile Editions — Germany — s. Three books printed in Germany in bibliophile editions, German. Copy out of a bibliophilic edition printed in copies. Size and condition vary, Good overall condition.
Heine in naturgetreuen Wiedergaben. Published by Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg-Berlin, Collection of facsimiles of Heinrich Heine's poetry from the years which were published in newspapers. Leaves of different sizes, bound together. Cover binding by Erich Buttner. Slightly stained leaves with wear at margins. Die Ersten Propheten [early prophets]. Bibliophile edition of the bible translated into German by Lazarus Goldschmidt — two first volumes out of three.
Printed in copies on high-quality paper.
Full color initials and color illustrations at chapter divisions. Fine bindings, in ancient style. Both volumes are in cardboard slipcases. Tears to wrappers and cases. Published by Hans von Weber, [Munich], Florentine Nights by the poet Heinrich Heine, in a bibliophile edition of copies. Illustrations by Franz Kolbrand. Rebound in gold-embossed blue leather binding. Some rubbing to edges of binding. Gerufene Schatten, Arnold Zweig. Hans Heinrich Tillgner, Novel by Arnold Zweig accompanied by lithographs created by Klaus Richter.
Lithographs are signed in pencil. Bibliophilic edition of copies printed on thick and fine paper. A small lithograph appears on one of the first leaves, four lithographs within the text and four lithograph-plates. Damage to edge of cardboard slipcase. Quality paper, wide margins. Leather binding, slight damage. Heinrich Heine and Robert Schumann, with engraving of Heinrich Heine by Moritz Oppenheim, facsimiles of poems and diary leaves by Heine and Schumann and Music by Schumann which has never been published.
Portrait of Schumann on the first leaf. Briefe aus Berlin, Heinrich Heine. A jubilee book published by Herbert Reichner in honor of Emil Rudolph Weiss fiftieth birthday Weiss, a German graphic designer, painter, typographer and poet. The book includes plates, among them engravings, lithographs, woodcuts, reproductions and photographs of title pages, initials, fonts and bindings designed by Emil Rudolph Weiss. Compositions by authors and artists, among them: A copy numbered out of a bibliophile edition of copies printed on thick paper in black and red ink.
Some stains and creases. Emerich Ullmann, Leo Grunstein. Exquisite catalogue of miniature portraits, from the collection of Prof. Emerich Ullmann, edited by Leo Grunstein. The catalogue features plates with reproductions of portraits, some in color. The volume opens with texts about the artists and their works. Printed on special paper. Bound in an impressive red leather binding. Stains and damage to binding. Published by Aquila Press. Decorations and cover design by Paul Nash. Black and red print. Printed in copies. Facsimile of the Frankfurt am Main edition, which included woodcuts.
Fadede spine, partly missing. German translation of the "Sefer Meshalim" previous item. Additional copy, out of an edition of copies printed manually for the society members. Die Umkehr des Abtrunnigen, Arnold Zweig. Des Moses Maimonides Morgengebet bevor er seine Kranken besuchte. Physician's Prayer, by Maimonides. Red and black print. Books were not checked thoroughly and are sold As Is. Two books, bibliophilic editions, published by Tarshish, Copy out of a bibliophilic edition of copies.
Enclosed is a typewritten letter printed on printing press stationery, announcing that the book was given as a gift and this edition is not for sale. Presses du Livre Francais, Paris, . Four short stories by Franz Kafka, translated into French. Bibliophile edition printed om thick paper with engravings by Otto Wols.
Good condition, binding slightly loose. Copy out of a limited edition of 25 copies. Catalogue of 40 monograms and illuminated letters designed by Willi Geiger. Inscription in pen on inner side of front cover from Some tears and folds to binding. With five impressive woodcuts by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , German painter and printmaker, one of the founders of the group of Expressionist painters Der Brucke.
Bound in a new leather binding, without front cover. Part of the original front cover - a woodcut by Kirchner - is inlaid in the binding. Die Ballette des Deutschen Theaters. Published by Erich Reiss, Berlin, Copy not numbered out of an edition of copies. Half vellum binding, stains to binding.
Reden, Berichte und Weissagungen Jesajas. Published by Max Perl, Berlin, Frontispiece portrait of Isaiah the Prophet and decorated initial letters, colored by hand. Eliezer Lazarus Goldschmidt was a Judaism scholar and an orentalist, translator of the Babylonian Talmud into German. Leather binding slightly damaged. First edition of a collection of short stories by Franz Kafka, published during his lifetime. The book is titled after one of the short stories in it - "A Country Doctor".
The copy offered here is bound in a half-leather binding; the spine is made of dark leather, with the title of the book and name of the author in gilt letters. Worn spine, with tears, gilt titles somewhat blurred. Damage at margins of binding. Sixth booklet in the series Wasmuths Kunsthefte.
With an introduction and short biographies. Eli, nach der Schrift neu geordnet von M. Chapter from the Book of "Shmuel A", translated into German and accompanied by three lithographs created by Lovis Corinth. Two small lithographs and an additional frontispiece lithograph, signed in pencil by the artist. Damage to margins of binding. Ten prints, out of which eight are engravings in black and white and two are woodcuts in color by various artists, among them: In this copy the title page and text pages are missing.
Prints in different sizes on leaves Verlag der weiner graphischen Werstatte, . Book with four illustrations by Arthur Paunzen.
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Stains, damage to binding. Primum' secundum et tertium. The first three chapters of the Book of Genesis. Each verse appears in French and Latin. Numerous woodcuts by Hermann-Paul are integrated into the text. Printed on thick paper. A bibliophilic edition of copies, signed and numbered copy, no. Hebrew title on the cover — Bereshit. Fair-good condition, wear to margins of leaves and to binding. Paper folder with folding flaps; front part is detached and one flap is detached.
Rheinsberg, Ein Bilderbuch fur Verliebte. Book by Kurt Tucholsky accompanied by six engraving-plates created by Kurt Szafranski. Paper of good quality. Brown leather binding with gilt decoration. Some damage to binding. Allerlei absonderliche Tiere, 40 Bilderbogen [All kinds of strange animals, 40 picture leaves], by Uriel Birnbaum. A book comprising forty illustration leafs by Uriel Birnbaum, originally published in the Viennese weekly for children "Der Regenbogen" [rainbow], for which Birnbaum worked in the years The illustrations in German: Bilderbogen , are in the format of comic strip — each one is divided into six rectangles telling a story through pictures each leaf about a different animal.
Below each picture is a rhymed text in German. OCLC lists one copy only. Some stains and damage. Tear to one leaf. Title page partly detached. Damage and stains to cover, tears to spine. Ownership ink stamps on two leaves. Uriel Birnbaum — Writings and Paintings. Works by expressionist artist, poet and author Uriel Birenbaum Signed and dedicated by Birenbaum.
A drawing by the author appears on the binding. Vienna and Berlin, Surrealistic works by Uriel Birenbaum. Published by Thyrsos Verlag. Leipzig and Vienna, Collection of surrealist works by Uriel Birenbaum. Cover illustration created by Uriel Birenbaum. Published by by R. Six books and booklets. Mutter — Engravings by Michel Fingesten — Berlin, Published by Der Neuen Kunsthandlung, Berlin, Ten engravings including title page by Michel Fingesten , signed in pencil. Accompanied by short texts by Rudolf Leonhard. Some stains to endpapers and to binding. On the fi rst of May in , the great Berlin Industrial Exhibition opened its gates.
The famous poster promoting the exhibition illustrates this ambition graphically: Enormous sums were spent on this exhibition, over 5 million marks, all of which the organizers expected to recoup. This promotional poster became famous in the new world of poster art, and was both lauded and reproduced in advertising handbooks and design journals. The drama and movement at the center of this poster helped inaugurate a new, modernist poster style. Sponsel, Das Moderne Plakat Dresden: The proximity of product and spectacle, moreover, changed the tenor of commodity display.
The exhibition organizers emphasized that it was a showcase of production, but equally, the great Berlin exhibition stood as a beacon for a new configuration of consumption. One could ride on such modern marvels as the hanging tramway and the new electric train that ran around the periphery. On a more overtly nationalistic note, mechanical models of armored battleships—each well over three feet long, with working cannons—fought mock naval battles on an artificial lake, to the delight of the assembled throngs.
But alongside the locomotives and huge electric generators were the exhibits mounted by the emerging giants of consumer goods. Gastronomic delight was melded to spectacular fantasy: An elevated moving walkway connected the exhibition proper to an amusement park. In addition to the by-now-standard tethered balloon rides, the park included a new water ride, where wheeled boats hurtled dignified exhibition-goers down a steep track into a small lake.
Alleys from old Cairo and streets of modern Cairo were elaborately reconstructed, and the buildings intricately decorated. This Egyptian Orient found expression in a huge reproduction of the Great Pyramid, framed by imported palm trees. Drawings of the architecture and of dancing dervishes featured prominently in the German illustrated magazines.
When visitors arrived at the Special Exhibition, they could purchase cotton goods, pots, and Oriental carpets on its teeming, Oriental streets— goods indelibly imprinted and pictorially prefigured with an exotic experience. Sited directly adjacent to the larger paean to industry, consumption, amusement, and exoticism, the Colonial Exhibition was one-tenth the size. The Colonial Exhibition was autonomous in all respects, from its separate organizing committee to its separate admission and promotional material Figure 1. Unlike the main exhibitions, financed privately through private entrepreneurs and civic boosters, the Colonial Exhibition emerged from unprecedented collaboration between a radical-nationalist interest group the German Colonial Society and the German state.
The Foreign Office provided 50, marks to fund the Colonial Exhibition, and its Colonial Section participated in all aspects of planning and production, including enlisting colonial governors to send raw materials and native peoples to Berlin for display. The Colonial Section even paid the freight. The fi rst, located directly adjacent to the amusement park, was the Colonial Exhibit proper. Its various buildings ordered and classified the German colonial project in discrete components: This was more than a simple attempt to tap into the resonance of scientific discourse among middle-class Germans.
In Bremen in , such objects—particularly the more spectacular ethnographic objects, such as wax face molds, cannibal hair, and bizarre fetishes— could lure in spectators. A mere six years later, however, Exotic Panoramas and Local Color 55 the ante had risen dramatically. German colonial science could offer little to rival the X-ray machines, giant telescopes, sky-trams, or photographic cameras just across the pond.
The organizers of the German Colonial Society also sought to demonstrate the economic worth of the German colonies to this concentrated German public. As visitors were funneled through the various segments of the Colonial Exhibition, they were instructed on the eventual economic benefits of the German colonies. Indeed, the Foreign Office had participated so avidly in financing and helping organize the exhibition because it wanted to facilitate the raising of investment capital for colonial companies— companies that would, theoretically, pay tariffs that would balance the budgets of the Colonial Section of the Foreign Office.
But the colonial economy in was little more developed than six years earlier. The exhibits of the small colonial companies, such as the Jaluit Company, were still outnumbered and surpassed by displays by German missionary societies and private explorers. Despite its ostensible focus on commerce, photographs reveal the Colonial Hall, for instance, to be fi lled primarily with ethnographic artifacts and dioramas of tropical structures, rather than consumable goods. In the Tropical House, 56 Exotic Panoramas and Local Color most of the displayed specimens of colonial agricultural goods did not come from territories under German rule.
The tall tower of carefully stacked ivory tusks displayed by the Hamburg ivory trader Heinrich Ad. Meyer, for instance, was quite impressive, judging by the interior photos of the Colonial Hall, but almost all of this ivory came from African lands outside of the German sphere, mainly the Belgian Congo. The colonialist organizers thus trod a narrow path. As the selfproclaimed arbiters of colonial knowledge, they insisted on authenticity in their displays.
But products actually imported from the lands under German colonial rule were few, expensive, and in short supply. With the possible exception of cocoa, there were simply no success stories in the German colonial economy of As colonialists, their appeal was nationalistic and patriotic: Nationalistic invocations of duty could make an effective strategy in rhetoric and in print. But as a visual strategy, it was dry stuff indeed. The second section of the Colonial Exhibition was the Native Village.
Three colonial villages in total were carefully built from grass and wood shipped in from Africa and the South Pacific. As the following chapter will show, the impresarios of these shows had discovered in the decade before that savagery sold tickets. Colonialists, whether scientists or armchair geographers, frequently derided such popular spectacles. The ethnographic display of the natives was intended to lure in spectators, but it was also structured to convey colonial ideology. First, the Native Village was an implicit demonstration of imperial power: Indeed, some of the showcased colonial natives were instructed by ethnologists on how to properly construct their dwellings.
In this effort, colonialist organizers sought to steer the audience toward an anthropological gaze, with its increasingly fi ne-grained discriminations of racial science. Official Report on the German Colonial Exhibition, for instance, more than forty pages were devoted to recording the anthropometry of the displayed peoples. Every colonial native taking part in the exhibition was minutely measured by the Berlin anthropologist Felix von Luschan. The width of his or her mouth, the size of his or her lips, the width and length of his or her skull, the width and length of his or her nose and ears, and scores of other bodily minutiae were recorded, printed, and sold as an important component of the book.
This scientific prowess—with its capacity to define and ascribe characteristics in minute detail—was one of the most compelling commodities the colonialists could offer. A number of scholars have commented on how the industrial power of Germany was set into the starkest relief by the primitive handicrafts of the colonial natives at work in the artificial ethnographic village.
That juxtaposition must have indeed been dramatic. Another juxtaposition was also dramatic, however; the technological and commercial power of the German industrial economy, manufacturing products such as cameras and consumables such as chocolate, set into stark relief the poverty of the German colonial economy. The Colonial Exhibition did attract more than 1 million visitors, largely drawn, it is clear, by the Native Villages and most of all by proximity to the Industrial Exhibition.
Meanwhile, the Special Exhibition Cairo pulled in more than 2 million, even given an admission fee almost double that charged by the colonialists. The Industrial Exhibition itself pulled in more than 7 million attendees. The cheap and popu lar Illustrated Official Guide to the Berlin Industrial Exhibition did not even include the Colonial Exhibition on its recommended tour.
There was, of course, the vision of a militaristic Weltpolitik. The displays of naval might and of colonial mastery seen in specific corners of the Berlin Industrial Exhibition proved that Berlin was an imperial capital and, as such, was capable of projecting power into the farthest corners of the world.
As the contemporary commentator Georg Simmel observed: Its role was to be not just a city of industrial production and a nexus of material goods, but a place where meanings of consumption itself were produced. Conclusion When we look for the origins of advertising in the fi rst great exhibitions in Germany, we fi nd a more complicated story than that offered by 60 Exotic Panoramas and Local Color Walter Benjamin, quoted at the beginning of this chapter. There can be no doubt that the laying out of commodities at the commercial exhibition indeed set the pattern for modern advertising, in that it provided one of the first means by which commodities became infused with larger cultural meanings that were intentionally produced.
In truth, different forces were at work in different portions of the exhibition, from sellers of goods to planners and collectors of gate receipts, demonstrators of science, purveyors of grand spectacles from Chinese pagodas to faux Egyptian pyramids, hawkers of cheap thrills, and pedants of knowledge. The changing balance of these interests, and their relative weighting and dynamic interactions, had an enormous impact upon the manner and range of meanings that could infuse the commodities.
At the Northwest German Exhibition in , edifying display practices stood at the confluence of commercial, exhibitionary, and political impulses, each put forth by different groups. They also sought to make the exhibition itself a commercial success, as measured in gate receipts. To achieve both of these goals, they needed something more alluring than tables with conventional trade goods piled atop.
In the Trade Hall, mundane displays of raw materials were spiced up by integrating them with murals, dioramas, and other exotic objects to create a virtual panorama of their land of origin. Such commercial vistas were alluring, and also could be sold as educational— thereby legitimizing the cultural and visual work of the exhibition. Finally, the unifying textual narrative for the African Hall was written by the professionals of the new German Colonial Society. Asserting their expertise, the colonialists became the de facto middlemen between missionaries, colonial companies, and explorers on the one hand, and the Bremen chamber of commerce on the other.
They commissioned wall murals, crafted display captions, and wrote whole sections of the guidebooks, and in the process sought to place the artifacts, the goods, and the imaginative visual travel all under a narrative arc extolling the patriotic advance of the German colonial cause. In the process, colonialists greatly exaggerated the economic importance of the German colonies themselves through a careful strategy of elision and spatial deception; tropical goods from the global market were grouped together with displays of the German colonies. Displaying trade goods alongside ethnographic artifacts within a colorful painted panorama helped to build and promote the very practice of commercial spectacle by infusing it with both the mantle of science and the appeal of overseas gaze.
A mere six years later, a great deal had changed, as seen on the sprawling grounds of the dramatic Berlin Industrial Exhibition. The organized colonialists had now accumulated enough financial and political capital to stage their own separate enterprise, which they termed the first German Colonial Exhibition. It has been said that the organizers of the Colonial Exhibition sought to sell ideas rather than products. Their didactic focus on the colonial sciences of geography and ethnography was as much a tactical necessity as it was an outgrowth of ideology. But just six years after Bremen, the fetishes of colonial contact—the masks, spears, shields, masks, arrows, skulls, and pots—no longer sufficed.
As Walter Benjamin suggested, exhibitions were the earliest form of advertising. It was commercial exhibitors who first incorporated elements of fantasy and visual allure into their displays to lend their commodities greater appeal to mass audiences. The character of such fantasies or such spectacles, however, was not preordained. Exoticism offered a potent theme for overseas wares, whether that exoticism was incarnated as the luxury of the Orient, as virtual travel to faraway destinations, as a bit of ethnographic color, as the authority of racial science, or as the patriotism of colonialism.
In the s the par ticu lar variant that would ultimately emerge triumphant had yet to be resolved. One more innovation in the field of representation in needs to be pointed out. Though the Native Village was a draw for the Colonial Exhibition, it had been largely forgotten a century later, and its very existence only recently recovered by historians. The path by which this poster rapidly worked its way into the new canon of advertising posters is revealing. From there it was reproduced in J. Its place in history was ensured in part through perfect timing: A decade earlier, however, the poster itself could never have attained the same reach.
In more than , copies of the hammer poster were printed and distributed throughout Germany. Many were even sent to other Eu ropean nations. Note that the packaging itself, raised high above the genuflecting Arabs and palm trees, is bedecked with illustrations of a German child. Some of these transported the scene to more exotic realms Figure 1. Panoramic strategies, such as the reconstructed performers of the Native Village or the reconstructed pyramid in the Special Exhibition Cairo, may have lured visitors in with 64 Exotic Panoramas and Local Color promises of savage authenticity and grand spectacle.
The future, literally, belonged to images. Four Burmese participated in the exhibition. An elephant was meant to accompany them from halfway around the world, but it unfortunately died en route. Yet for all of its timeless veracity, a photograph may not offer the best approximation of how an event was actually seen.
The encounter at Bremen, for instance, was also captured in an engraving of a modeler from Burma practicing his craft under the watchful gaze of the passing public Figure 2. This illustration appeared in the Illustrirte Zeitung, and it is certain that many more Germans saw this illustration—with its juxtapositions of work and leisure, of exotic and refined dress, of observer and observed—than saw either the Burmese themselves or the photograph. Such shows initially entered the German public sphere under the auspices of education, to show foreign habits and folkways.
But they rapidly evolved into outlandish enterprises of sensational spectacle, and by the late s, of thrilling savagery. The change in the character of these shows between and has Impressions of Others 67 been linked to the changing character of audiences, in which a tension played out between elite and popu lar forms of spectatorship.
But the changing character of audiences— and the popularization of the shows more broadly— arose in part out of emerging new practices of promotion, particularly the innovative use of visualization. Both the popularity of the exotic peoples show and the visual stimulation of this popularity would have significant ramifications for the emerging field of advertising. Exotic people were fascinating not just for their bodily difference but because they were seen as the virtual embodiment of the distant land from which they originated.
Christopher Columbus famously brought back Native Americans Arawak to Spain after his second voyage in as physical proof of his discovery. Their grim fate as slaves in Spain is less frequently recounted. Explorers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries carried back Inuit and Native Americans, often by force, to display in Eu rope. What is less recognized is the dynamic, even fraught relationship between the physical and the representational in such encounters.
The corporeality of these living stand-ins for exotic lands was less important than the representation of their corporeality. This point is easily overlooked, but before the nineteenth century, few people personally saw these living representatives of distant lands. Instead, most Europeans only saw such exotics as they appeared in lithographs and paintings— artful representations purporting to serve the same role of authentication. Over a year span, European illustrations of peoples ranging from Patagonians to Polynesians all look remarkably similar, as the art historian Christopher Steiner points out.
A few portraitists worked from living models, such as when Joshua Reynolds sketched and painted Omai in the s, but these were exceptional cases. Most early engravers worked from the illustrations of their predecessors. If a sixteenth-century engraving of a noble savage from the New World looks like a seventeenthcentury engraving of a Hottentot, which looks like an eighteenth-century engraving of a Tahitian, the engravers can perhaps be forgiven, having only these previous representations to work from.
Moreover, in some pictorial approaches, reiteration of expected motifs was entirely the point. Allegorical representation was a linchpin in the art of early modern Europe, and allegory relied upon prior familiarity. One particularly common allegorical convention that would later become important to the commercial world was the representation of continents as three Impressions of Others 69 human figures.
Advertising Empire: Race and Visual Culture in Imperial Germany
This harks back to early medieval imagery, where the three magi from the Gospels of Matthew became associated with the three parts of the world: Europe, Africa, and the Orient. Later artists and engravers used these established allegories to represent abstract themes, such as travel or trade, on seventeenth- century maps; this convention carried over to frontispieces for commercial treatises in the eighteenth century, and from there to mastheads for such illustrated journals as Over Land and Sea in the nineteenth.
For instance, when the Liebig Company, one of the first multinational corporations, issued chromolithographed trading cards from the s, a great many of the early designs used allegorical figurations of people to show abstract concepts such as trade and global travel. The physical processes of certain types of image reproduction also factored into the interchangeability of exotic figures. Painting could convey tremendous amounts of detail and visual texture. But inexpensive ink printing entailed different considerations. Before the widespread adoption of planographic techniques in the nineteenth century, illustrations were reproduced by an engraved block, often placed in with set type.
Originally these blocks were wood; later they were copper or steel. Blocks took tremendous skill to carve, and only printed items that commanded high prices, such as luxury editions of books, could afford to commission original engravings. Copper and steel engravings in par ticular could be used many times, and creatively written prose could recast the role of the adapted image.
The images could then appear again and again in different contexts, even crossing national borders. Only the text of the Pfennig-Magazin was set in Germany; its images were not even secondhand, but thirdhand, for the Pfennig-Magazin purchased all of its woodcuts from the Magasin Pittoresque in Paris, which in turn had purchased them from the Penny Magazine in London.
Nonetheless, many of its engravings clearly came from British publications.
The mechanical conditions of print served to structure the visual canon of the primitive in the mercantile world. In Europe as early as the seventeenth century, a small range of specific wares, particularly tobacco, used black allegorical figurations of New World exotics, affi xing them to bales of tobacco or even to individual wrapping as a referent of authenticity Figure 2. These early figures of Tobacco Moors were often depicted in languid repose, harking back directly to those sixteenth-century engravings of the voyages of dis- Impressions of Others 71 [To view this image, refer to the print version of this title.
Eduard Maria Schranka, Tabak-Anekdoten: Ein Historisches Braunbuch Cologne: Feinhals, , By personifying the distant land, the Tobacco Moor figure also implied the prowess of the merchant, who demonstrably had the connections to get the goods. Thus Tobacco Moor scenes very indirectly referenced the systems of English, French, and Dutch colonial enterprise in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, for these early colonial systems facilitated the production and transport of the goods in the fi rst place.
This freely blends allegorical markers of the New World, Africa, and India. Widder Verlag, , When scholars today examine these Tobacco Moor images, the question immediately turns to whether they are representations of Africans or Native Americans. Even the black figure itself might be drawn with long blond hair. Some of this mercantile dependence upon allegorical signifiers derived from the technological ramifications of its inexpensive production.
For commercial images that were intended to be discarded, the high cost of the fi nest copper-plate engraving was not supportable. Cheap wood print blocks had a limited lifespan, however; fine detail might be achieved in small quantities, but when images were printed on a large scale, detail and quality were lost with each print.
A well-known cluster of signs that together made up a familiar referent— allegory, in other words—was ideally suited for poorer quality, inexpensive print production. Viewers could recognize familiar referents— sometimes little more than inky splotches— and mentally fi ll in the meaning themselves.
The image did not itself need to carry the weight of the message within its own frame; instead, the interpretive weight was borne by the familiarity of prior acquaintance. By way of illustration, Figure 2. The motto is in Latin, French, and English. Circa s, from a steel engraving Stahlstich. The motto is in Latin, French, and Dutch. Ein Historisches Braunbuch Cologne, , 31— Impressions of Others 75 spanning a century or more.
In all of the icons, a few key symbols— the sun with a face, the sailing ships, the black workers, the white mastertrader, and the motto, Petum optimum Subter Solem—remained constant for more than one hundred years. The fi rst version from the mideighteenth century Figure 2. Ships and a sun are recognizable, though little else is. A second version, perhaps from around , reveals further detail Figure 2.
The black figures are recognizable as such by their color, and they wear the leaf skirts of the Tobacco Moor. The Eu ropean in the image has also become recognizable by his three- cornered hat, buttoned frock coat, and high boots. A third version not shown here , likely from the early nineteenth century, shows a greater inclusion of detail; the eyes, nose, and mouth of the Eu ropean are recognizable, although the black figures remain faceless.
In cheap relief printing, reproducing detail on a black face is far more difficult than on a white one. The last image, from the mid- to late nineteenth century, evinces both more detail and a new depth of field Figure 2. The bodies of the black figures, however, remain the single least developed element of the composition. Cheap woodcuts of the Tobacco Moor drew on allegorical personifications of high art to be meaningful.
Early modern printing woodblocks were simply reused— and they could be reused, meaningfully, because of the flexibility in representation based on allegorical signifiers, and because of the long-standing artistic tradition of painting primitives with broad brushstrokes. The People Show and the Popu lar Press in the s In Germany in the s, the presentation of living people rather rapidly and unexpectedly developed into a massive commercial enterprise.
And like the Tobacco Moor of the previous century, it is difficult to say for certain whether the figure is meant to stand for the wild American Indian because of the bow or the wild Zulu-Negro because of the blackness. After these sideshows transformed, growing into elaborately staged touring productions that appeared in the fairgrounds and theaters of the largest urban centers.
Facing a downturn in the exotic animal trade in , Hagenbeck turned to exotic peoples; alongside a group of reindeer, Hagenbeck brought in a small family of Laplanders Sami , displayed with all of their accoutrements and publicly performing the activities of their daily life. Meanwhile, competitors immediately appeared, hoping to cash in on the people-show circuit: Cunningham all staged shows of their own, including of Laplanders, Native Americans, and Australian aboriginals.
Just as authenticity or claims to it legitimized commercial exhibitions to the German public as we saw in the previous chapter , so too could it legitimize performances. Like the commercial exhibition, attending a people show was said to be the next best thing to traveling to an exotic destination. It thereby has the advantage of being both genuine and cheap. Because of it, we do not have to undertake an expensive journey. There is no need to shell out for a six-shot revolver, pith helmet, or veil.
If you could not afford the enormous expense of a trip to South America, you could instead see Tierra del Fuego embodied in the Fuegians. Little wonder that these more authentic shows attracted larger crowds; Hagenbeck claimed that his third show, of Nubians Sudanese in in Breslau, had 30, visitors the fi rst day; it supposedly reached 62, visitors in a single day at its peak. His most successful show purportedly saw more than 93, paying spectators in a single day. This access was useful in an era before anthropological fieldwork was feasible or even thought necessary.
In return, support of anthropologists such as Rudolf Virchow and Felix von Luschan carried legitimacy with the authorities, helping to secure police approval or the requisite permits. From their birth in the s to the s, these magazines were the primary purveyors of imagery to the middle classes and were the precursors of the mass media of the s. The globe, however, is carried on the straining backs of three figures representing the other continents: In this way, the people shows and the illustrated journals grew in symbiotic fashion.
For their part, the shows gained an incalculably valuable promotional medium that spread descriptions and imagery to hundreds of thousands of potential ticket purchasers. Note that no German spectators or Berlin landmarks are included in the illustration, which gives the impression that this scene might actually be transpiring in south Asia rather than Berlin. Illustrirte Zeitung 81, no.
Regardless of scientific overlay, the primary relationship between impresario and audience remained in the realm of commerce and was measured not by the intangibles of edification but in the cold calculations of gate receipts. Selling Sensationalism in the Wax Museums The very spaces in which many shows were staged reveal the growing intrusion of popu lar spectacle into respectable edification. Though some of the larger shows by Hagenbeck in the s were held in zoological gardens and other scientific establishments of the bourgeoisie, a great many were staged in venues with less respectable credentials.
The Castans forged ties with scientific notables and were so successful that they established other locations in such cities as Bremen and Hamburg. Pauli, Hamburg, in ; he later incorporated it as the Panopticum AG and by the s was seeing more than , visitors annually. The Panoptikum of Germany thus was the direct heir of P. Most of the Panopticons had attached theaters, and they staged shows of live natives more or less continuously from the s through It also included a thousand-seat theater.
In the Passage Panopticum, for instance, to get to the theater, one first entered into the halls fi lled with the busts of renowned German aristocrats, scientists, and academics. They exaggerate cranial size and facial features; the lips are painted cherry red. Nationalism, science, and popular spectacle served as backdrops for the live shows of dwarves, bearded women, snake charmers, odalisques, and last but not least, Togolese children. The interplay between the respectable and the sensational inside the walls of the Panoptikum found its way out onto the streets— as design on chromolithographed posters.
Panoptikum posters generally aped the mode of the emergent mass media. Around the edges are arrayed an illustrated overview of the newsworthy and the noteworthy, the bizarre and the sentimental. A mechanical professor is next to a sword-balancing acrobat. Little Red Riding Hood encounters the Wolf. The Seven Dwarves watch over a catatonic Snow White. A German soldier bids farewell to his family.
A man and woman are roped together a marriage ceremony? Meanwhile, interspersed are contrasts and aberrations: What linked these diverse things together was a new, modern sensibility of spectacle. Each spectacle is useful only insofar as it might trigger an emotional response in a viewer— sentimentality, curiosity, horror, disbelief—that might then propel the viewer into the establishment. The people show and the Panoptikum were more than per for mances that simply catered to public curiosity.
They were commercial projects, crafting a gripping view of the world and disseminating that view through innovative promotions. The enterprises of Hagenbeck and Castan, in fact, were at the very forefront of visual strategies that other commercial enterprises, particularly manufacturers, would later adopt. The successful displays of people in the s, whether live or made of wax, made groundbreaking and eye-popping use of the most recent technological innovation: Pauli district in , initially printing labels for goods and products on hand presses.
He moved in the rather dubious circles of showmen and carnies—he was a board member of the Society of Traveling Showmen Vereins reisender Schausteller und Berufsgenossen and even printed its newsletter. His fi rm had effectively injected a new visual style into the German public sphere— a style that stood out for its colorful vibrancy and startling sensationalism. The circus posters of the United States, particularly those of P.
Indeed, the influence of Barnum on the development of German popularly oriented commercial culture is as extraordinary as it is unrecognized. Pauli in November The sense of movement is vivid. And 2 Singhalese dwarves. Feet are raised off of the ground, limbs are stretched out, flowing hair shows the figures are in motion. Meanwhile, vibrant patterns and colors of dress contrast against the dark skin, which itself is drawn to gleam with reflected light.
The whole composition grabs the eye and excites the senses in a collage of color and frozen movement. This type of poster differs dramatically from the sedate and static posters in the German classical style, like those for the commercial exhibitions. In Berlin, close to , people attended the Singhalese show, from which Hagenbeck grossed approximately 32, marks.
There the orientalist image was reinterpreted by devotees of the indigenous cult of Mami Wata. Finally, the image ultimately became the centerpiece of artwork by a practitioner of voodoo in Haiti. In some cases, the connections were direct. The profitability of the people shows raised the potential for money-making opportunities beyond the stage, and this led to some of the very first examples of promotional product tieins to emerge in Germany. Omitting his first name, of course, associated his tea brand with his increasingly legendary brother.
Designed by Ludwig Berwald, this poster became one of the very earliest exemplars for professional advertisers: Brockhaus, , Spread to all peoples! In fact, such stories abound. Modern Reklame 1, no. For the emerging business of poster design, the embodiment of distant lands as peoples in a panoptic array proved doubly irresistible, for it allowed them both to illustrate a difficult concept and to demonstrate they had their finger on the popu lar pulse.